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Recording laws deal with whether you or the abuser can legally record conversations or actions and whether those recordings can later be used in court. In a relationship where there is domestic violence or stalking, an abuser may record your conversations or take video of your actions to get more information about your personal life and to keep you from having any privacy in order to keep power and control over you, learn about your schedule, and possibly use the information against you later to blackmail you depending on what is recorded.
You can learn more about how an abuser could misuse recording technology and recorded information again you in our Electronic Surveillance page. Note: The content below will specifically cover recording your conversation or your image. Some states allow recording of telephone calls and in-person conversations with the consent of at least one of the parties. Therefore, the law may allow you as a part of the conversation to solely give consent to the recording.
Other states require that all parties who are a part of the conversation give consent to a recording before recording a conversation is considered legal.
These recording laws would apply regardless of which party is recording the conversation. In other words, if you are recording a conversation to gather evidence of threats or abuse, but your state requires that all parties in the conversation consent and the abuser has not consented to the recording, your actions could be illegal.
It may also be helpful for you to know whether the law allows you to record a conversation where the abuser threatens or abuses you if you are trying to keep a record of the abuse. United States , U. But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected. Generally, any evidence gathered in an illegal way cannot be entered into the record in a court proceeding.
Another possible challenge with getting a recording admitted into evidence during a court hearing is that the judge may decide that your recording is considered hearsay an inadmissible out-of-court statement. It may be helpful to speak with a lawyer in your state to get legal advice about how to deal with any recorded evidence that you think is important to your case or how to object to recorded evidence that the abuser tries to admit into evidence.
Most states do not have laws that specifically address spoofing technology. However, it can be illegal to use caller ID spoofing to defraud someone or to cause harm. See What laws protect me from impersonation? An abuser could use spoofing to make you believe you are receiving a telephone call from a family member or from an advocate or lawyer. If an abuser does this, however, it can easily be proven that you did not make the phone calls since they will not appear on your phone bill in your outgoing calls.
It can be very difficult to prove spoofing in court. It has become so easy for people to get false phone numbers and there are so many companies that provide numbers, that it can be hard for someone to be able to definitively prove spoofing. That being said, while it is difficult to prove that somebody is inappropriately using spoofed telephone numbers, there are some steps that a victim of spoofing can take to help the judge to better understand what is happening.
Here are some things you may want to think about:. The smaller the timeframe or the more unique the timeframe, the better. Sometimes people will send messages either voice messages or text messages from multiple spoofed numbers.
For example, sometimes you may have evidence of a breakup or some other noteworthy incident that can be proven to the judge by showing social media posts, voicemails, emails, or other proof that acknowledge the breakup or other incident. Often, the spoofed calls may start immediately afterwards. Other types of abuse : Is the abuser doing anything else that you can prove to the judge?
Showing up at your home or work? Posting negative things about you online? Sometimes, doing a Google search for your own name can reveal if the person is posting anything about you online.
Or perhaps the person has said something about you on Facebook or another social network? Evidence in court : Sometimes the best way to get evidence to use against someone in court is actually to request help from the court to get it.
Phone records are often the most direct way to show that spoofing has occurred. Comparing the phone call records may show that the abuser made a call at a certain time and that you received a call at that exact same time or a minute after.
In that case, only the online spoofing numbers would show up on the phone records of the abuser. However, if the time of the calls made and the calls received match up, this can still be persuasive to a judge. However, comparing phone records is not a perfect answer because not all spoofing calls will be on the phone records.
For example, if the person makes the spoofed calls through an app, you may need to request the records from the app itself - but you may not know which app was used. If you are a victim of spoofing, you could contact a lawyer in your state for legal advice about what laws could apply to your situation.
You could also work with an advocate in your state to plan for your safety. Electronic surveillance can be done by misusing cameras, recorders, wiretaps, social media, or email. Spyware can allow the abusive person access to everything on the phone, as well as the ability to intercept and listen in on phone calls. It depends on whether the person doing the recording is part of the activity or conversation and, if so, if state law then allows that recording.
The differences between these two are explained more below. If the person is part of the activity or conversation: Many states allow someone to record a phone call or conversation as long as one person including the person doing the recording consents to the recording.
Other states require that all parties to the communication consent. However, if state Y requires that each person involved in the conversation know about and consent to the recording, Jane will have to first ask Bob if it is OK with him if she records their conversation in order for the recording to be legal.
To learn more about the laws in your state, you can check the state-by-state guide of recording laws from the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press. The names of these laws vary across the country, but they often include wiretap, voyeurism, interception, and other recording laws.
Legally, a reasonable expectation of privacy exists when you are in a situation where an average person would expect to not be seen or spied on. Spyware can be installed on a:. Spyware can allow an abuser access to everything on your device, as well as the ability to record and listen in on phone calls or other communications. Spyware software may be hidden on a device, and generally does not give a notification that the software has been installed or is in use.
It can be hard to find spyware once it is installed and also hard to remove from a device. Installing and using spyware could be illegal based on stalking or harassment laws, computer laws, wiretapping, or eavesdropping laws.
You may want to speak with a lawyer in your state for legal advice. To read the specific language of the laws in your state, go to our Crimes page. Some states have specific laws that address the recording of telephone, online, or in-person conversations. If someone who is not a part of your conversation records the conversation without your consent, it may be illegal even if you know that person is listening to you speak.
Below, we give general definitions of various types of crimes. Wiretap is a form of electronic surveillance where a person monitors or records telephone communications. Most typically, people think of wiretapping as a way that law enforcement tracks criminals or gets access to incriminating evidence. However, wiretaps are also something that abusers and stalkers have misused to listen in on and record telephone conversations. Many states have laws that criminalize wiretapping.
In addition, most state wiretap laws also address whether someone who is part of a conversation is allowed to record that conversation without the permission of others. Interception laws usually apply to communication other than telephone conversations, such as email and text messages. Eavesdropping can be done in various ways, some of which may not involve complex technology. For example, if you are talking on a landline at home, someone else can pick up another receiver in your home and listen in.
If someone wants to record your conversations, this could be done on a basic tape recorder or by using an app or software to monitor and record conversations on your smartphone. Eavesdropping laws generally apply when the parties have a reasonable expectation of privacy. Invasion of privacy laws can apply to situations where an abuser misuses technology, such as a surveillance device, in order to observe, monitor, or record your personal or private activities.
This may include taking nude or partially nude photos or videos without your consent. Voyeurism refers to the act of spying on someone for sexual pleasure. Impersonation generally refers to when someone uses a false identity and commits acts that will result in personal gain or that will deceive or harm another person, which often involves the use of technology. Impersonation generally refers to when someone uses a false identity and commits acts that will result in personal gain or that will deceive or harm another person.
Social Media Abusers might create fake social media accounts in your name, log into your accounts by having or guessing the password, or manipulate technology in a way that makes it seem like a communication is coming from you. Some abusers have even created fake messages to make it look like they are the person who is getting harassed. They may use the accounts to send harassing emails that look like they are coming from someone else or that mask their identity as the sender.
In many cases, however, the original sender can still be proven with the help of law enforcement. Abusers may also create an email account in your name in order to send emails to others while pretending to be you.
This could be done because they are trying to embarrass you, discredit you, put you at risk of harm, or cause some other negative consequences in your life. You can find more information about spoofing in on our Spoofing page. Online impersonation An abuser may also use your private information to pose as you on the Internet and invite others to harass you or put you in danger. For example, an abuser may create an advertisement posing as you directing others to contact you for escort or massage services, or inviting others to come to your home or call your home for a specific purpose.
Some abusers could even use impersonation to encourage others to sexually assault you. Please note that these laws, explained below, do not necessarily have to involve impersonation, but may apply when someone is impersonating you. If an abuser impersonates you or someone else for the purpose of harassing you, that may be a crime that you can report to the police.
To see if there is a law against harassment in your state, go to our Crimes page for your state. If the damaging statement is spoken out loud, that act may be considered slander ; and if the statement is written, then it may be considered libel. If an abuser has impersonated someone else to speak or write false and damaging statements about you, or has impersonated you to spread false information, you may be able to sue in civil court for money damages.
See our Suing an Abuser for Money page for more information on civil lawsuits. False light is a tort civil wrong that is available in some states and is similar to defamation explained above. False light privacy claims are different from defamation claims because defamation is meant to protect your reputation and false light privacy laws are meant to protect your mental or emotional well-being. To prove false light, the courts generally require proof that:. If an abuser has impersonated someone else to share information that places you in a false light, you may be able to sue in civil court for money damages.
Generally, even if the information published about you is not necessarily false but is misleading and offensive, a false light claim may apply. There may be criminal laws in your state that specifically address impersonation. A Global Positioning System GPS is a network of satellites that provides location information to many common devices such as smartphones, car navigation systems, and laptop computers. The satellite information allows these devices to be located on a map.
There are many different types of devices that use GPS technology and GPS can be extremely useful for tasks like finding nearby establishments or getting directions to an unknown location.
GPS monitoring can also lawfully be used in many ways ï¿½ for example, a parent may monitor the whereabouts of a minor child or a judge may order that someone on probation be monitored through a GPS device.
However, as GPS technology has become cheaper and more advanced, small and easily hidden devices can include GPS technology and make it harder to know which devices have tracking capabilities, enabling abusers to misuse the technology to track your location. For example, nearly all cellphones now have GPS technology that could be misused by an abuser to gain access to information about where you are and where you have been. Because domestic violence is about one person seeking power and control over another person, an abuser may misuse GPS technology to try to gain or keep control over you.
For example, an abuser could use GPS to learn where you have been, and then misuse this information against you. Because GPS-enabled devices can be so small and easily hidden, an abuser could hide a device in your belongings or car. The GPS in your phone could also be used to track you. Your location information through the GPS in your phone is not automatically available to another person, but there are a variety of ways that an abuser could get that information.
An abuser may use this technology as a way to stalk you or to maintain power and control over you by not allowing you to have any privacy or autonomy. Some states may have laws that specifically protect you from having a tracking device installed on your property without your consent. If the abuser tampered with your personal technology devices e. Additionally, electronic surveillance laws may also apply to a situation where an abuser is monitoring or tracking you.
Many of these laws are not specifically focused on domestic violence, so when speaking to the police, an advocate, or an attorney, it may be a good idea to suggest that they look at the computer crimes or privacy laws within your state.
You can find laws in your state on our Crimes page by selecting your state from the drop-down menu. You can also find legal resources on our Finding a Lawyer page to discuss your case with a lawyer. If an abuser seems to know too much information about where you have been or shows up in random locations that you did not share that you would be at, you may consider checking your belongings or car for hidden GPS-enabled devices.
GPS can be included on a number of different types of devices, so you may need to look for something that you do not recognize or something that is out of the ordinary. A device will generally need a power source, so if a person has not had access to your belongings for a substantial period of time, you may want to see if there is a device that is connected to a power source like your car battery or under your dashboard.
You may be able to get help from a professional to search your belongings. If you find something, an attorney, advocate, or law enforcement can help you determine what the device is and what to do with it. You can also find out a lot of information about a device if you do an online search with a description of the device that you found. In addition to looking for unknown devices, it is also important to consider whether GPS is currently enabled on the devices that you already own.
You may also consider keeping a log of incidents related to the tracking so that you have evidence of a pattern or history to share with a lawyer or law enforcement.
GPS monitoring can be particularly dangerous if you are attempting to safely leave an abusive relationship since the abuser would be able to locate you. However, if you find a GPS device in your property, it can be important to safety plan with an advocate before removing any type of tracking device since removing the device may alert the abuser that you have found it. Safety Net , a project of the National Network to End Domestic Violence, also has information on how you can limit location access on your smart phone and tips for staying safe if an abuser is using technology to monitor you.
An abuser may access break into your computer or other technology device without your permission and copy or steal your data, such as private identifying information, employment information, calendar details, etc.
Computer crimes include but are not limited to, misusing a computer to steal information or something else of value, manipulate you, harass you, or impersonate you.
Other crimes we describe, such as hacking, are specific to the use of computers or technology devices. An abuser could commit a computer crime to gain access to your information and use that information to keep power and control over you. The term computer crimes can be used to describe a variety of crimes that involve computer use. Computer crimes do not include every type of misuse of technology. The list of possible crimes below is not all of the ways that a computer could be misused but will give you an idea of some of the more common forms of misuse.
See our full Technology Abuse section to read about additional ways an abuser can misuse technology and other legal options. Hacking is when someone intentionally gains access to your computer without your permission or accesses more data or information than what you allowed. An abuser could also hack into your account without your knowledge, including through the use of spyware.
Therefore, it is important to keep safe passwords and to only use technology devices that you believe to be safe and free of spyware or malware. The software can be inappropriately installed on computers and on other devices, such as tablets and smartphones.
Spyware can be installed without your knowledge by either gaining physical access to your device or sending attachments that will download the software onto your device when you click on a link or download the attachment. Once spyware is installed, an abuser can see and record what you type, the websites that you visit, your passwords, and other private information. Phishing is a way that an abuser may use a text message or an email that looks real or legitimate to trick or scam you into providing your personal information.
The abuser could then go on to use your personal information to steal your identity, monitor you, or blackmail you. Computer fraud is when someone uses computers, the Internet, Internet devices, and Internet services to defraud people, companies, or government agencies.
An abuser could use a computer or the Internet to pose as someone else and defraud you or to pose as you and defraud a third party to cause you to face criminal consequences, for example. Many times, abusers use information that they already have available such as a Social Security number, name and date of birth, and residential history in order to steal an identity.
There are several federal laws that address computer crimes, including the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and the Wiretap Act.
Additionally, many states have individual laws that protect a person against hacking. The National Conference of State Legislatures has complied computer crime laws on their website and state phishing laws. The National Conference of State Legislatures has also compiled spyware laws on their website.
You can also check our WomensLaw. Additionally, you may also have an option to use the civil legal system to combat computer crimes. For example, you may be able to sue the abuser in civil court for the misuse of a computer. You may also be able to ask a civil court, including family, domestic relations, or divorce courts depending on your state, to order the person to stop committing computer crimes by asking a court to include protection provisions in a restraining order.
If you have a restraining order, committing a computer crime may also be a violation of the order. You can find lawyer referrals on our WomensLaw. Technology misuse can often be dealt with in both civil court and criminal court. The process and purpose for using each court is different and you may accomplish different outcomes depending on which court you are in.
In criminal court, the case is filed by the state or county prosecutor and the purpose is to punish the abuser for breaking the law, which may result in jail time.
In some situations, there may be both civil and criminal cases happening at the same time or close in time based on the abusive behavior. For example, in , Erin Andrews, a sportscaster on ESPN, was stalked by a man who filmed her in her hotel room through a peephole.
A year later, the stalker was convicted of stalking in criminal court and sentenced to over 2 years in jail.
Five years later, Erin Andrews successfully sued the stalker in addition to the hotel and others in civil court for money damages based on negligence, invasion of privacy, and emotional distress. One way to address the misuse of technology can be through the civil court system. To file a lawsuit in civil court, you can use an attorney or file on your own. You the victim can sue for money damages for things like lost wages, loss of your job, emotional pain and suffering, damage to yours reputation, and even punitive damages to punish the defendant.
If your damages are below a certain amount, you may be able to file on your own in small claims court. In some states, if you were the victim of the crime of disclosure of intimate images, the law may allow you to sue the person who discloses or uses the image for damages that increase each day the abuser is in violation of the law. You can learn more about the option of suing an abuser in civil court by reading our Suing an Abuser for Money page and selecting your state from the drop-down menu.
There also may be other important civil legal options to consider in technology-related abuse cases, especially those that deal with the sharing of images of you without your consent. One possible option, for example, deals with turning over the copyright of images to you. However, in a civil lawsuit, it may be possible for you to request ï¿½ and for a judge to order ï¿½ that the defendant sign over any copyright ownership of the images to you the victim.
Therefore, if you are the copyright owner, you would have the legal power to decide where the pictures are published and you may be able to demand that the pictures be removed from the Internet or other publications. For advice on whether or not you may have a valid legal claim to get the copyright of any images taken of you, please consult with a lawyer who is knowledgeable about copyright law and technology misuse. Another way to address technology misuse is through the criminal court system.
In the criminal law system, cases are filed by the state prosecutor also called the district attorney or attorney general in some states based on violations of state criminal law. Or if a federal law is violated, the federal prosecutor would be the one to file the case. To see a list of some common crimes in your state, especially those that involve technology misuse, go to our Crimes page and enter your state in the drop-down menu.
One important difference between a civil and criminal case is that in a criminal case, the prosecutor is the one who decides whether or not to file the criminal case against the abuser and whether or not to withdraw the criminal charges.
It is up to the prosecutor whether to continue the case or not. You do not necessarily have the same ability to start or dismiss a case in criminal court the way you may be able to in civil court.
Nothing is more important than your safety and your well-being. If you are being abused or stalked by someone who is misusing technology, it will be important to think through ways to increase your safety and privacy that take that technology into consideration.
Since technology is constantly changing and the application of laws in this area are still developing, there could be situations where the current law may not address exactly what is happening. However, most acts of misusing technology for the purposes of harassment, stalking, and abuse are illegal. Even if you are unable to or choose not to seek protection, damages, or other forms of justice in civil or criminal court, you can still make a plan for your safety and get help to deal with the emotional trauma that you may experience.
See our Safety Planning page for more information on ways to increase your safety. You can contact your local domestic violence organization for additional help creating a safety plan or for other assistance. There may be some helpful resources available to you if you want to learn more about technology misuse and increasing your privacy and safety online:.
In cases involving the use of technology, you may have some additional challenges related to saving and presenting your evidence. In this section, we discuss some ways you can prepare your evidence for court. Digital evidence is information that is stored on, received, or transmitted in a digital format by an electronic device that can be used in court to help prove abuse occurred.
Digital evidence is sometimes referred to as electronic evidence. This evidence is often created when abuse involves the use of technology. Here are a few examples:. Digital evidence is different from other types of evidence that you may want to use in court, such as printed pictures, testimony, and other types of official records.
One difference is the actual format of digital evidence, which would be in electronic data files. These files are most commonly found on mobile devices and computers, or stored in online accounts. Therefore, you will need to think through how to present it in a format that the judge will be able to examine.
Another difference is that digital evidence can be easily changed, damaged, or destroyed, so it is important to protect the data. This may be done by creating backup copies that are saved to a second device, taking screenshots and emailing them to yourself, and updating account passwords.
However, here are some things you may want to consider:. Again, it is helpful to work with a lawyer to prepare for a court hearing or get legal advice about what you may be able to use in court. The rules generally address what is allowed as evidence in court and deal with issues such as:. You can find lawyers in your state on our Finding a Lawyer page if you want to get legal advice about how to present evidence in your case.
Any evidence can be documented so that you can access it later. For purposes of this page, to document your evidence means that you are taking steps to:. Documenting your evidence can be helpful if you later need to produce it for a court hearing or other legal matter.
Documenting your evidence could include things like keeping a log of abusive incidents, printing out abusive emails, taking screenshots of abusive text messages or social media posts, or printing any related photographs or cell phone records.
If an abuser is using technology to abuse you, often the evidence of that abuse is located on the Internet or on a device like a cell phone, tablet, computer or video camera. Documenting this evidence can be very helpful if at some point you want to try to have the legal system hold the abuser accountable.
It is important to document the evidence as soon as possible because an abuser may be able to access and delete the proof of the abuse. This is a completely understandable response.
For instance, you can silence message notifications from that particular person or set up a folder in your email account and create a rule for messages from that sender to go straight to the separate folder. Documenting this evidence is so important because in court hearings for an order of protection, for example, the judge is making decisions about what to include in an order or whether to grant an order.
At these court hearings, the judge will often hear evidence and testimony from both sides. Having your evidence documented in a form that you can bring to court allows you to present it to the judge to support your testimony. The best way to document evidence of abuse will depend on the exact circumstances of your case and the way that the abuser is using technology to commit the abuse.
You may wish to speak with a lawyer or domestic violence advocate in your state about what records you should keep. Some ways you may consider documenting your evidence is to keep a log or a record of the details of each incident as the incidents occur.
You can also download a sample Technology Abuse Log to help with this. The log could include:. It is important to save any voicemails, call logs, emails, or text messages that are sent, and to take screenshots or photographs of the phone or computer screen and store them in a safe location separate from the device on which you originally accessed them.
When taking screenshots or photographs, be sure to include as much information as possible. For instance, you will want to show the phone number of the person who is sending harassing messages, not just the contact name you assigned to that person in your phone. You should print out emails with the full header information included so that details such as the date and time of the email and the IP address it was sent from can be easily identified.
It is important to only document this from the original email. If the email has been forwarded, you will no longer have the information related to the original sender. Also, you can take screenshots of any posts made on social media to preserve them in case the abuser who posted them later deletes them. Many social media sites and apps allow you to download the data on your account. Once you download your account information, you may be able to collect your evidence that way. If you have filed criminal charges, law enforcement may be able to send a letter or subpoena to the social media company or website asking them to keep the account information.
If you find evidence that you are being stalked or monitored, like a hidden camera, microphone, or GPS tracker , you may want to think through the impact of removing or interfering with the equipment. Removing it could impact both your safety if the abuser knows that you found it and your ability to document it.
Perhaps you may want to consider asking the police to document the evidence before removing it. Before taking any action, you may want to work with a domestic violence advocate to think about how removing the equipment may impact your safety and to safety plan.
Below is information on ways the court system may use technology to try to protect victims of domestic violence from an abuser, including ordering GPS monitoring of offenders, allowing virtual visitation in custody cases, and using co-parenting tools. You can also find information on ways abusers may misuse technology on our Abuse Using Technology page. Some states have specific laws that allow judges and law enforcement to use technology in ways that are intended to protect victims of domestic violence.
For example, law enforcement and courts can use Global Positioning Systems GPS technology to track offenders who have committed domestic violence and stalking. There are two types of GPS tracking ï¿½ active and passive. The location history may then be reviewed from time to time by a probation officer or it may be used as a tool by law enforcement if you allege that the abuser violated the order.
Depending on your state, a judge may be able to order GPS tracking in a criminal or civil court case. Additionally, with active GPS monitoring, if there are not enough well-trained law enforcement officers to quickly respond when an abuser enters a prohibited location near you or if the court does not have proper procedures in place to hold offenders accountable for violating court orders, GPS monitoring is not as effective.
Also, if you do not have access to the technology required to alert you if the offender comes near you or if the technology fails, active GPS monitoring may not provide you with enough warning for you to protect yourself. You may want to discuss your situation with a domestic violence advocate to decide whether GPS monitoring would be helpful in your situation and to safety plan.
However, not all states use this technology to track abusers in the civil court system. Lawyers and victim advocates in your state may also be able to help you understand what legal protections are available in your situation. You can also find information on ways abusers may misuse technology on our Technology Abuse page. Some states have virtual visitation laws that allow a judge the authority to order that visits take place through technology as part of a custody order.
This might also be used as an alternative for when the custodial parent has relocated or is requesting relocation, to ensure that the relationship and communication between the child and the non-custodial parent continues between any physical visitation that was ordered.
Although a parent who is requesting relocation might be able to request virtual visits, the duration and frequency would have to be agreed upon by the parties or ordered by the judge. Virtual visitation laws allow parents to use technology to keep in contact with a child. The custodial parent the parent with whom the child primarily lives may be able to use virtual visitation to allow contact with the non-custodial parent if in-person visitation is not safe or practical for the child or parent.
Depending on what type of technology is used for a virtual visit, you may also be able to have a log or record of what happened and what was said during a visit if the technology makes a recording of the visit.
If you are a victim of domestic violence, you may be able to use video conferencing or other technology and social media sites to allow the child to have some contact with the other parent when you wish to limit in-person visits. However, in many states allow virtual visitation is used as an addition to in-person visitation, and judges may hesitate to order it as a complete replacement to visits.
An abuser trying to gain access to your computer to track you or steal your information could also try to share links with you to get you to download spyware or malware onto your computer. You may also consider talking to an advocate to safety plan around using technology with an abusive co-parent. You may also be able to request virtual visitation even if your state does not have a law addressing it. You may consider asking a lawyer if it is possible to request virtual visitation in custody cases in your state.
Certain electronic systems exist to better facilitate communication between parties in family law cases and to coordinate custody and visitation schedules. Your communications are tracked with functions such as an electronic journal, a message board, expense log, and calendar. WomensLaw is not affiliated with Our Family Wizard or any other co-parenting technology tool and cannot vouch for any products. Our Family Wizard is only named as an example.
Technology tools that track your communications can protect you if there is a dispute between you and your co-parent about what was said since there is a record of the communications. Additionally, having clear visitation schedules that clarify the custody arrangement can be useful for when parents need to plan vacations or other activities.
Generally state laws do not require a judge to order how parents communicate while co-parenting one exception might be if there is a restraining order in place. Judges may be reluctant to issue an order requiring that parents use technology to co-parent because they may not be familiar with the technology, may not believe they have the power to make that type of order, or may find it is inappropriate for some other reason.
Additionally, these programs usually require a fee for use, so that may prohibit you from having access to them. To think through whether or not using some sort of communication tool may work for your situation, you may want to talk to a lawyer who specializes in custody and domestic violence issues.
You can learn about general custody laws in your state on our Custody page by selecting your state from the drop-down menu. All rights reserved. Adopters are also faced with the challenge of properly integrating industrial operations with IT, where both connection and information need to be secured. While gathered data plays an important role in generating insights for the devices and infrastructures, it is imperative that personal information be segregated from general log data.
Information like personally identifiable information PII should be stored in an encrypted database. Storing unencrypted information together with other relevant activity in the cloud could mean businesses running the risk of exposure. Many security problems associated with the IIoT stem from a lack of basic security measures in place. Security gaps like exposed ports, inadequate authentication practices, and obsolete applications contribute to the emergence of risks.
Combine these with having the network directly connected to the internet and more potential risks are invited. Businesses may have grown familiar with the probable business impact of having IT systems go down because of cybercrime or malware infection.
However, the convergence of IT and OT introduces a new significant risk factor: real-world threats that could affect even civilians.
Unsecure IIoT systems can lead to operational disruption and monetary loss, among other considerable consequences. More connected environments mean more security risks, such as:. A notorious example of an OT system compromised through the IT environment is the December cyberattack against a power grid in Ukraine, where the adversary was able to infect the IT infrastructure to shut down critical systems and disrupt power in thousands of households.
While pushing for productivity in operations is essential for IIoT systems, security should be regarded as much. Connecting OT to the internet could make businesses more viable, with the help of the many sensors and connected devices at work and the real-time data that they generate. But failing to invest in cybersecurity could undermine the benefits. This is where security by design and embedded security approaches should come in.
Having a security operations center SOC is critical in proactively monitoring and defending against the broad range of threats that affect connected environments. This centralized unit allows industries and enterprises to oversee the significant number of alerts that they may encounter and to enable quick response. SOCs are especially beneficial for facilities in need of better visibility and continuous analysis of their security posture. It is the goal of SOC teams to detect security incidents or any anomalous activity and be able to immediately address issues before any compromise could occur.
This approach addresses the challenges that could come with legacy systems, low system visibility, and slow response times. However, shifts in the threat landscape as well as industrial infrastructures require organizations to adapt their protection for the new and unknown threats that they may encounter.
Having a full stack of protection purposely built into the different layers of IIoT implementations would enable industries and enterprises to securely conduct their operations.
These security layers include the device, the network, and the cloud. The device layer usually comprises the IIoT devices and applications that are brought in from different manufacturers and service providers. IIoT adopters should be able to know how their manufacturers and service providers transmit and store data.
And in the event of a security issue, manufacturers and service providers should also be able to actively notify enterprises of what needs to be taken care of. On the network area, there is the gateway, which gathers data from devices.
This is the part where organizations should have next-generation intrusion prevention systems IPSs in order for them to monitor and detect potential attacks. The gateway is also where there is usually a control center that issues commands to different devices. The control center is the most critical place where organizations should implement security hardening to ensure protection against malware infection or hackers gaining control of it. Finally, the cloud is where providers should have security implementations that run server-based protection to mitigate the risk of hackers taking advantage of servers and stored data.
This reiterates the concern that organizations are subject to applicable data protection retributions.
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 3rd Computational Methods in Systems and Software CoMeSySo , a groundbreaking online conference that provides an international forum for discussing the latest high-quality research results. The Internet has become the most proliferative platform for emerging large-scale computing paradigms.
Among these, data and web technologies are two of the most prominent paradigms and are found in a variety of forms, such as data centers, cloud computing, mobile cloud, and mobile Web services. These technologies together create a digital ecosystem whose cornerstone is the data cycle, from capturing to processing, analyzing and visualizing. The investigation of various research and development issues in this digital ecosystem are made more pressing by the ever-increasing requirements of real-world applications that are based on storing and processing large amounts of data.
The book is a valuable resource for researchers, software developers, practitioners and students interested in the field of data and web technologies. Author : Andy Curtis Publisher: Springer ISBN: Category : Education Languages : en Pages : View Book Description This volume presents in-depth studies on leading themes in education policy and intercultural communication in contemporary Asia, covering empirical as well as theoretical approaches, and offering both an in-depth investigation of their implications, and a synthesis of areas where these topics cohere and point to advances in description, analysis and theory, policy and applications.
The studies address key questions that are essential to the future of education in an Asia where intercultural communication is ever more important with the rise of the ASEAN Economic Community and other international initiatives. These questions include the properties of the increasing globalisation of communication and how it plays out in Asia, especially but not exclusively with reference to English, and how we can place intercultural communication in this context, as well as studies that highlight intercultural communication and its underlying value systems and ideologies in Asia.
The increasing amount of IoT devices, however, has led to the emergence of significant privacy and security challenges.
Security and Privacy Issues in Sensor Networks and IoT is a collection of innovative research on the methods and applications of protection disputes in the internet of things and other computing structures. While highlighting topics that include cyber defense, digital forensics, and intrusion detection, this book is ideally designed for security analysts, IT specialists, software developers, computer engineers, industry professionals, academicians, students, and researchers seeking current research on defense concerns in cyber physical systems.
The 38 full papers included in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from submissions. Drawing from the real-life exploits of five highly regarded IoT security researchers, Practical IoT Hacking teaches you how to test IoT systems, devices, and protocols to mitigate risk. The book begins by walking you through common threats and a threat modeling framework. With the efficiencies that big data bring to all institutions, data is continuously being collected and analyzed.
However, data sets may be too complex for traditional data-processing, and therefore, different strategies must evolve to solve the issue.
The field of big data works as a valuable tool for many different industries. Demystifying Internet of Things Security. Break down the misconceptions of the Internet of Things by examining the different security building blocks available in Intel Architecture IA based IoT platforms. This book reviews the threat pyramid, secure boot, chain of trust, and the SW stack leading up to defense-in-depth. The IoT presents unique challenges in implementing security and Inte Rethinking the Internet of Things.
Rethinking the Internet of Things was a Jolt Award Finalist, the highest honor for a programming book. And the amazing part is that there is no code in the book. Over the next decade, most devices connected to the Internet will not be used by people in the familiar way that personal computers, tablets and smart phones are.
Billions of inter Enabling Things to Talk. The Internet of Things IoT is an emerging network superstructure that will connect physical resources and actual users. It will support an ecosystem of smart applications and services bringing hyper-connectivity to our society by using augmented and rich interfaces.
WebThe book offers great ideas and thoughts on how to approach security with the mindset of a hacker so that itï¿½s easier to think about vulnerabilities that can occur - a great way for . WebAbstract and Figures The Internet of things refers to a type of network to connect anything with the Internet based on stipulated protocols through information sensing equipments . WebThe internet changes everything -- Mobility, clouds, and digital tools usher in a connected world -- The industrial internet emerges -- Computer devices get smart -- Putting the .